*Theories of choice from economics and philosophy suggest information requirements for good choices. In view of these requirements, we can see why current menus lead toward regrettable and isolating choices. We propose principles for redesigning menu systems, and consider the possibility of a public database about choices and outcomes. Such a system would reshape the media ecosystem and incentives for business.*
* **[Searching for Options](#addiction)**
*Search costs and desperate choices.*
* **[Information Requirements](#life-in-review)**
*The role of the device.*
*Our values, our choices, our selves.*
[Repairing individual choicemaking](#repair)
* **[Visible Promises](#promises)**
*What do we hope for when we click?*
* **[Collective Wisdom](#collective-wisdom)**
*Public data, satisfying choices, & lives well lived.*
* **[Promising Recommendations](#recommenders)**
*Repairing feeds and autosuggests.*
* **[Value Browsing](#neighborhoods)**
*Administering our own identities.*
[Beyond individual choicemaking](#beyond)
* **[Social Choices](#social-choice)**
*Choices are rarely for ourselves.*
* **[Best-Outcome Economies](#outcome-economy)**
*Consequences for business and society.*
Much of our daily lives are structured by menus. Whether we are deciding which email to respond to, what to order at a restaurant, which stores to visit on a street or in a mall, what job listings to investigate--we navigate our lives by scanning lists of options.
We can ask, then, what are the responsibilities of menu-makers?
This essay focus on one key responsibility: to present options on-screen in a manner that is free from bias and manipulation. Currently, many kinds of menus (including, on devices--app stores, notification screens, browsers) are guilty of two broad kinds of manipulation:
**Hidden costs**. *Time costs* for instance are often unexpected on the internet. Whereas in commerce we are wary of hidden costs, unexpected fees, and consider them *dishonest business*, unexpected costs via the internet are not yet seen as dishonest.